Glossary of Terms beginning with A

Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.

Advanced Business Application Programming: The programming language used to develop in SAP


Activity Based Costing

Accenture (ACN)

Contractor working with Umoja team to deliver the ERP solution.

Accounting basis

Accounting basis is the accrual, modified accrual, modified cash or cash basis of accounting

Accounting policies

Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements.

Accrual basis

Accrual basis is the accounting basis under which transactions and other events are recognized when they occur (and not only when cash or its equivalent is received or paid). Therefore, transactions and events are recorded in the accounting records and recognized in the financial statements of the periods to which they relate. The elements recognized under accrual accounting are assets, liabilities, net assets/equity, revenue and expenses.



Active market

Active market is a market in which: (a) the items traded are homogeneous; (b) willing buyers and sellers can normally be found at any time; and (c) prices are available to the public.

Activity Types

Activity types are used to describe the various forms of activity that are performed at a cost center.

Actual amounts

Actual amounts (for budgetary purposes) are presented as part of the comparison schedule as well as a basis of a reconciliation schedule, resulting from the execution of the budget. For the purposes of IPSAS 24, they include actual expenses and obligations that are comparable to the final budget presented.

Actuarial gains and losses

Actuarial gains and losses comprise: (a) experience adjustments (the effects of differences between the previous actuarial assumptions and what has actually occurred); and (b) the effects of changes in actuarial assumptions.


The apportionment of costs based on an estimate rather than a direct measurement. The types allocation can be direct internal activity allocation, indirect activity allocation, calculation of imputed costs, distribution, and assessment.


Amortization is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an intangible asset over its estimated useful life.

Amortized cost of a financial asset or financial liability

The amount at which the financial asset or financial liability is measured at initial recognition minus principal repayments, plus or minus the cumulative amortization using the effective interest method of any difference between that initial amount and the maturity amount, and minus any reduction (directly or through the use of an allowance account) for impairment or uncollectibility.


Appropriation is an authorization granted by a legislative body to allocate funds for purposes specified by the legislature or similar authority. For the UN appropriations are voted by the General Assembly

Approved budget

Approved Budget is the expense authority related to the anticipated revenue or receipts for the budgetary period. The General Assembly of the UN approves the General Fund budget prior to the start of each biennium.


Advanced Security in the Field


Advanced Shipping Notification


Assets are resources controlled by an entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits or service potential are expected to flow to the entity.
Assets used to deliver goods and services in accordance with an entity's objectives, but which do not directly generate net cash inflows, are often described as having a service potential.

Assets held by a long-term employee benefit fund

Assets (other than non-transferable financial instruments issued by the reporting entity) that: (a) Are held by an entity (a fund) that is legally separate from the reporting entity and exists solely to pay or fund employee benefits; and (b) Are available to be used only to pay or fund employee benefits, are not available to the reporting entity's own creditors (even in bankruptcy), and cannot be returned to the reporting entity, unless either:
(i) The remaining assets of the fund are sufficient to meet all the related employee benefit obligations of the plan or the reporting entity; or
(ii) The assets are returned to the reporting entity to reimburse it for employee benefits already paid.


Associate is an entity in which an investor has significant influence and that is neither a controlled entity nor a joint venture of the investor.


Available to Promise - The quantity of a material that is available in inventory and can be used for new orders.

Available-for-Sale Financial assets

Those non-derivative financial assets that are designated as available for sale or are not classified as (a) loans and receivables, (b) held-to-maturity investments or (c) financial assets at fair value through surplus or deficit.